**Mathematics of Poker: Odds and Outs**

So I have a couple of questions about this article - An OESD has 5:1 odds from Flop to turn BUT 2:1 from Turn to River - why is that?

Also, can the 4 2 rule be a useful application? On flop multiply your outs b x4 to see the percentage and on turn x2 to see the percentage, a point to note is that the more outs you have the less accurate the equation becomes. For example 8 outs for OESD on flop would be 8 x 4 = 32%

Another point from the article - a very valid point - is your discounted outs. But how often do we assume the worse? For example we are drawing to a straight and hit but our opponent completes the flush? How often can we assume that he's made the flush - can we call down thinking we are beat or think that in the long run the flush will not have always been completed?